Relations between ASEAN and India were mutually antagonistic.  J. Barkley Rosser Jr. wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right.  It was during her interview[clarification needed] that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru.  Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power. Question 24.  After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and served in Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Food security : Food security means availability, accessibility and afford ability of food to all people at all times. "Meetings That Changed the World: Bellagio 1969: The Green Revolution. The Kashmir conflict remained largely peaceful if frozen under Gandhi's premiership.  There was fierce criticism of the action by Sikhs in India and overseas.  The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five-Year Plans yet; showing an average growth rate of 5.7% over 1980–85. She was being treated there in 1940, when Germany rapidly conquered Europe.  In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics.  Gradually, Indian and Iranian disillusionment with their respective regional allies led to a renewed partnership between the nations. a Collector.  Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. These steps culminated in party president S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the party for indiscipline. Gandhi did not see the purpose of feminism. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came to power after the State of Emergency was lifted.  The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi.  American policy makers had complained of continued restrictions imposed on the economy. Mark Tully and Satish Jacob, Amritsar – Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (Calcutta: Kuldip Nayar and Khushwant Singh, Tragedy of Punjab, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1984, page 79. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life. , Although the Maruti Udyog company was first established by Gandhi's son, Sanjay, it was under Indira that the then nationalized company came to prominence. In reality, they need to still pay for expensive pesticides and irrigation systems, which might lead to increased borrowing to finance the change from traditional seed varieties. (a) To shop keeper (b) To land lord’s  But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality. Congress reminds media of Nixon's remark on Indira Gandhi, says 'Bangladesh liberation happened after that' India. , Her actions in storming the Golden Temple alienated Sikhs for a very long time. ", Gandhi inherited a weak and troubled economy. Since, the HYV seeds technically can be applied only in a land with assured water supply and availability of other inputs like chemicals, fertilizers etc. But tensions lay ahead. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. However, despite the initial prosperity experienced in Punjab, the Green Revolution was met with much controversy throughout India.  The men dropped their weapons and surrendered. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said.  At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union. , Within a few months, President's rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party.  After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations—Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya—supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962. Gandhi's authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device at Pokhran in 1974 was viewed by Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as an attempt to intimidate Pakistan into accepting India's hegemony in the subcontinent. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign.  The provisions included rapid enforcement of land ceilings, housing for landless labourers, the abolition of bonded labour and a moratorium on the debts of the poor. She did not appoint any women to full cabinet rank during her terms in office. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the northeast were joined to Himachal Pradesh.  The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India. On September 26, 1967, Swaminathan got Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to inaugurate a seed processing centre of the society at Jaunti. Print. Golden Revolution: The period between 1991 to 2003 is known as the period of the Golden Revolution.  By doing this she had hoped to ward off the growing political conflict between Hindu and Sikh groups in the region. having good irrigation and other infrastructure facilities were able to derive the benefits of the green revolution and achieve faster economic development while other states have recorded slow growth in agriculture production. , However, it proved to be a useful measure and was pioneer in helping the Government at the time to independently produce necessary crops in her own country instead of depending on foreign exports and whose policies were often misused by the foreign nations to blackmail India to serve their own political purpose and get dominated by those nations..  Although rhetorically Gandhi may have attempted to separate her political success from her gender, Gandhi did involve herself in women's organizations. The government was successful in bringing down inflation during the emergency; achieving negative figures of −1.1% by the end of 1975–76. " Regardless of the controversy over the nature of the reforms, the long-term effects of the social changes gave rise to the prominence of middle-ranking farmers from intermediate and lower castes in North India. Groundwater practices have fallen dramatically. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision.  On 23 June, Sanjay was killed in a plane crash while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre in New Delhi.  In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which demanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state.  Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. This was unacceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, which wanted the continued use of English in government. In her own accounts through her letters, she wrote to her friend Dorothy Norman, in 1952 she wrote: "At about eight or nine I was taken to France; Jeanne d'Arc became a great heroine of mine.  Efforts to rope in the Asian community to join Indian diplomacy, however, came to naught, in part because of the unwillingness of Indians to remain in politically insecure surroundings, and because of the exodus of African Indians to Britain with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1968. In 1960s India food insecurity related largely to the large gap between food need and food production.  North India was at the centre of the reforms. November 1917 als Indira Priyadarshini Nehru in Allahabad; 31. 2012 January 29. , Gandhi contributed to, and carried out further, the vision of Jawaharlal Nehru, former premier of India, to develop its nuclear program.  Excluding the countless unreported cases, there has been estimated to be a 51.97% increase in the number of suicides in Punjab in 1992–93, compared to the recorded 5.11% increase in the country as a whole. "A Bitter Harvest: Farmer Suicide and the Unforeseen Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India. , The day before her death (30 October 1984), Gandhi visited Odisha where she gave her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Odisha. Who founded the Green Revolution in India with his high-yielding variety (HYV) of wheat and rice, after which it was implemented by the Government of India in its fourth "Five-Year Plan" (1969–1974) when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister? Pankaj Vohra noted that "even the late prime minister's critics would concede that the maximum number of legislations of social significance was brought about during her tenure ... [and that] she lives in the hearts of millions of Indians who shared her concern for the poor and weaker sections and who supported her politics. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee..  After becoming prime minister, Gandhi expressed her intention of nationalising the banks to alleviate poverty in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation". The support of the Soviets with arms supplies and the casting of a veto at the United Nations helped in winning and consolidating the victory over Pakistan in the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war. , Gandhi's advocacy for women's rights began with her help in establishing the Congress Party's Women's Section. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the make of the weapons used and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The production of wheat has produced the best results in fueling self-sufficiency of India. c Indira Gandhi. 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